Cataplexy--A symptom of cataplexy includes a loss of
muscle tone that leads to feelings of weakness and a loss of
voluntary muscle control.
Central sleep apnea--This is a sleep disorder in
which the airway is not blocked but the brain fails to signal the
muscles to breathe.
Chronotherapy-- This is a behavioral technique in
which bedtime is systematically adjusted. It is used in cases
when the patient's sleep-wake pattern is out-of-synch with
the external environment.
biological rhythms include the internal "clock," which influences
when, how much, and how well people sleep.
Cognitive therapy--In some cases of insomnia, this
therapy includes interventions that are meant to help people
identify and correct inappropriate thoughts and beliefs that might
contribute to insomnia.
CPAP(continuous positive airway
pressure)--This is an effective treatment for sleep apnea
patients. It delivers air into airways through a specially designed
nasal mask or pillows.
Delta sleep--Also called slow-wave sleep, this deep
sleep occurs in stages 3 and 4 of NREM sleep.
Mixed sleep apnea--This is a combination of central
sleep apnea and obstructive sleep apnea.
Multiple sleep latency test (MSLT)--This test
assesses the severity of sleepiness by measuring the speed of
Narcolepsy--This is a neurological condition in
which people experience excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy,
sleep paralysis, hallucinations, and intermittent, uncontrollable
sleep attacks during the daytime.
Non 24-hour sleep-wake disorder--This is a circadian
rhythm disorder, usually seen in blind people, in which the
sleep-wake pattern does not conform to the usual 24-hour cycle.
Non-rapid eye movement (NREM)sleep--This is
one of the two basic states of sleep. It consists of stages 1, 2
(light sleep) and 3,4 (deep sleep).
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)--This is the most
common kind of sleep apnea. It is caused by a blockage of the upper
Periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD)-- This is a
disorder in which rhythmic jerking of the legs interrupts sleep,
causing insomnia and/or excessive daytime sleepiness.
Parasomnias--These are abnormal behaviors that occur
during sleep that interrupt sleep and can result in injury,
insomnia, and/or excessive daytime sleepiness.
Polysomnography--This is a test that records sleep
architecture (such as the amount of NREM and REM sleep, number of
arousals) and a variety of body functions during sleep, including
breathing patterns, heart rhythms, and limb movements.
Progressive muscle relaxation (PMR)--This is a
relaxation method that involves tensing and relaxing muscles of the
body in a given order, ultimately to achieve relaxation of the
whole body. It is useful in some cases of insomnia.
Rapid eye movement (REM)sleep--REM is one of
the two basic states of sleep. REM sleep, also known as "dream
sleep," is characterized by rapid eye movements, and more irregular
breathing and heart rate compared to NREM sleep.
Sleep apnea--This is a serious sleep disorder that
occurs when a person's breathing is interrupted during
Sleep hygiene--This refers to the practices, habits,
and environmental factors that are important for getting sound
Sleep paralysis--This is a symptom of narcolepsy. It
involves the temporary inability to move or speak while falling
asleep or waking up.